Unfortunately, spawning Chinook salmon are increasingly younger and concentrated within fewer age groups, with the oldest age classes of spawners rarely seen in recent years. The researchers focused on Sacramento River fall-run Chinook salmon, which contribute heavily to the salmon fisheries of California and southern Oregon. If most of the salmon return to spawn at the same age, one bad year could be devastating for the overall population. The model allowed the researchers to assess the effects of different mechanisms that can affect the age structure of the population. But fishing pressure is not the only factor driving changes in the age structure of the salmon population.
New autism diagnoses tend to be clustered within specific NHS service regions, suggesting that where an individual lives may influence whether they receive an autism diagnosis and access to special education needs support. After analysing all new autism cases across England using NHS health service boundaries for possible hotspots, some areas stand out. For example, 45.5% of the NHS Rotherham catchment area had higher-than-average new autism diagnoses clusters. Of the 32 million pupils studied, more than 102,000 new autism diagnoses were identified between 2014 and 2017. After adjusting for age and sex, the researchers found that one in 234 children were given a new autism diagnosis during that four-year period.4 months ago EurekAlert
That’s because the radioisotope – in this case, Lutetium-177 – is attached to gold nanoparticles by a polymer synthesised by Winnik’s group, a substance made of large molecules with various metal-binding sites. The group also plans to study the effectiveness of other radioisotopes attached to the gold nanoparticles, which may achieve even more precision in erasing cancer cells. This is a very energy-demanding process that allows brain cells to communicate with each other, Duong says. Using these iPSCs, Duong later created 2D and 3D brain cells, or organoids. This study provides important groundwork for creating more sophisticated patient 2D and 3D brain cells for disease modelling and the study of mitochondrial dysfunction across a wide range of brain diseases.5 months ago EurekAlert!
Based on the analysis and the results of a calculation programme developed at TU Graz (CalCAS – calculation of comparison for alternative solutions), recommendations have been made for alternative solutions for different track-work machinery. According to the Institute at TU Graz, track maintenance work produces 9,600 tonnes of CO 2 annually in Austria alone. “Track-work machines are also vehicles, but in terms of type they are more like construction machines which travel on rails,” explains Matthias Landgraf. There are many factors that are crucial in the fossil-free future of track work machinery. According to Matthias Landgraf, the findings of the joint study will support the evaluation of alternative drive technologies for track work machinery and the weighing of opportunities and risks.2 months ago EurekAlert
“We’ve demonstrated a way of building spectrometers that are far more miniature than what is typically used today,” said Ethan Minot, a professor of physics in the OSU College of Science. “Integrating it directly into portable devices such as smartphones and drones could advance our daily lives,” Yoon said. “It’s exciting that our spectrometer opens up possibilities for all sorts of new everyday gadgets, and instruments to do new science as well,” Minot said. For environmental monitoring, Minot added, spectrometers can detect exactly what kind of pollution is in the air, water or ground, and how much of it is there. “It would be nice to have low-cost, portable spectrometers doing this work for us,” he said.5 months ago EurekAlert!
They have thus created a 3D atlas that allows finding out when the neuronal differentiation in their definitive form occurs and, moreover, they have shown that their final position in the tissue depends on their time and place of birth. Currently there are tools that allow quantifying in 2D, but very few do so in 3D. The researchers have created a 3D brain atlas from confocal microscopy images and computational tools to allow understanding when neurons are born and what their final destination is. This is the first mapping of the brain carried out in a vertebrate, since cartographies of the fruit fly already existed. A dynamic and expandable Digital 3D-Atlas MAKER for monitoring the temporal changes in tissue growth during hindbrain morphogenesis.4 months ago EurekAlert
Although new treatments options are becoming available, the overall prognosis for advanced liver cancer remains poor. Out of 11 patients who could be evaluated to see if the drug was making an impact on the cancer, cancer shrank by at least 30% (a partial response) in two of them for 2.5 and 9.3 months. She said: “Drugs to prevent cancer cells dividing and proliferating have not shown much benefit in the clinic for patients with liver cancer so far. Liver cancer is one of the most fatal diseases; the percentage of people with advanced disease who are still alive five years after diagnosis is measured in months rather than years.  EORTC [European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, NCI [National Cancer Institute], AACR [American Association for Cancer Research].4 months ago EurekAlert!
The weakening of the system ultimately led to the strengthening of an atmospheric loop in the Indian Ocean that keeps warmer water on one side and cooler water on the other. That fits into what is often seen in recent Indian Ocean dipole events. The melting cooled the Atlantic and consequent wind anomalies triggered the atmospheric loop over the tropical Indian Ocean to become more active and extreme. That then led to increased precipitation in the east side of the Indian Ocean (where Indonesia sits) and reduced precipitation in the west side, where East Africa sits. “Greenland is currently melting so fast that it’s discharging a lot of freshwater into the North Atlantic Ocean in ways that are impacting the ocean circulation,” Russell said.2 months ago EurekAlert
A team of Chinese researchers are using recent LED improvements as a springboard to launch a more interconnected illumination network. On top of illumination control, researchers from information and communication technology (ICT) areas have demonstrated the feasibility of something called visible light communication (VLC), which transmits information by modulating LED light intensity. This form of communication could simultaneously support information services such as localization, data transmission and even optical therapy without causing eyestrain or damage. ##About Intelligent and Converged NetworksIntelligent and Converged Networks is an international specialized journal that focuses on the latest developments in communication technology. Intelligent and Converged Networks draws its name from the accelerating convergence of different fields of communication technology and the growing influence of artificial intelligence and machine learning.2 months ago EurekAlert!